Sonography in Pregnancy

What is Ultrasonography?

■ USG is one of the first line investigation in obs. & gynecology and infertility .It can be used for inerventinal procedure also. It can be coupled with Doppler and 3D- 4D scan.

■ We have state of high tech uitrasound machine (1) Voluson E8 BTO 13.5 at clinic (2) Logiq P3

■ Ultrasonography is relatively is inexpensive, readily available , non invasive ,radiation free relatively less time consuming and easily repeatable

■ It can be performed transvaginaly and transabdomanaly

Gynecology and Infertility

■ Helps in determine the structure of uterus & fallopian tube, ovary, adnexa, blood perfusion, endometrial thickness volume & vascularity

■ It helps in detection of pathological lesion , ovarian mass, cyst, adenomyosis, endometrial fibroid, polyps etc.

■ Helps to study follicular maturity & ovulation.

■ Tubal patency can be performed by sonosalpingography

■ USG can guides oocyte retrival & embryo transfer in vitrofertilisation

■ It can guide in drainage of pelvic collection or cystic lision

■ It rules out out ectopic pregnancy

■ For gynec cancer

■ It can access pouch of doglas

■ PICS ; Fibroid, Polyp, Ectopic, Ovarian cyst, Simple chocolate cyst

USG in obstetrics

■ Sound waves are used to create real time visual image of the developing embryo or fetus in its mother’s womb

■ It’s a standard part of antenatal clinics

■ It provides information about mother’s health, timing of pregnancy, progress of pregnancy , health and development of foetus

We recommend USG as per ISUOG:

❶ 1ST visit :conformation of pregnancy , Dating , No of foetus

❷ Between 11 to 14 wks : NT Scan screening for chromosomal abnormality and structural survey of foetus

❸ 20- 22 wks scan : for anomaly , it includes Echo

❹ Biometry doplor , echo, color Doppler

1st Trimister

✅ Early pregnancy 1st scan includes gestational sac size location and number
✅ Rule out ectopic
✅ Fetal length
✅ No of foetus , Amniotic sac, chorionic sac in case of multifoetal pregnancy
✅ Gestational sac can reliably seen on TVS at 5 wks pregnancy

11- 14 wks ( Tripple markers, Anatomical survey)

✅ Assesment of foetal age
✅ Foetal movment
✅ Placental location, cord insertion
✅ Nuchal transulancy, ductus venosus flow, & normal nasal bone helps screening chromosomal abnormality of foetus
✅ Foetal head, spine , all long bones, hands, foot, ribs.
✅ Stomach bladder , foetal kidney, genitalia and abdominal wall
✅ Foetal heart- 4 chambers out flow, ventrical septum, Aortic arch & ductal arch
✅ Cervical length
✅ If patient is found screen positive she advice for biomarker to rule out
✅ USG guided amniocentasis is done if biomarkers are abnormal

2nd Trimister

✅ Dedicated survey of extrafoetal envirment like cfoetal envirment like cervix, placental location, cord origine & insertion, amount of fluide
✅ Foetal structural biometry measurements of all bones , organ measurement , access of foetal age, maturity, growth
✅ Checks status of fetal organs it include head, spine, lungs, diaphragm, stomach, kidney, urinary blader, ant. Abdominal wall , foetal back, genitalia
✅ Detailed study of foetal heart with using advanced STIC echo
✅ Colour 3D-4D
✅ Color doplor give assessment of foetal perfusion, prediction of hypertension
✅ Assesment of risk of premature labour by messurment of cervix
✅ Soft markers give idea regarding possibility of chromosomal problems

3rd Trimister scan

✅ To see foetal position
✅ Watch for oligo
✅ Biometry to see foetal growth
✅ Doppler for foetal perfusion
✅ Echo in detail
✅ Placental maturity


What Is a Pregnancy Ultrasound ?

A pregnancy ultrasound is an imaging test that uses high frequency sound waves to create pictures of a baby in the womb, as well as the mother’s reproductive organs. The average number of ultrasounds varies with each pregnancy and should only be used when medically indicated.

An ultrasound, also called a sonogram, can help to monitor normal fetal development and screen for any potential problems. Along with a standard ultrasound, there are a number of different, more advanced, ultrasounds—including a 3D ultrasound, a 4D ultrasound, and a fetal echocardiography, which is an ultrasound that looks in detail at the fetus’ heart.

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